Relation between Vitamin D Deficiency and Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: A Meta-analysis

Authors: Mohammed M. Farid*; Mohamed F. Allam**; Asmaa A. Ahmed* and Radwa M.K. Bedair

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Keywords: Pediatrics


Background: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRTIs) are a leading cause of sickness and mortality both in children and adults worldwide. ALRTI includes tracheitits, bronchitis, bronchulitis and pneumonia. The most common cause of ALRTIs in children is the vital cause. 2ry bacterial infection may occur in different situations and according to children immunity. Risk factors affecting the severity, recurrence and response to treatment are different according to site of infection. One of the risk factors might be vitamin D deficiency and that why we did this study to summarize this relation.

Objective: The aim of our study is to summarize available data on vitamin D deficiency and its positive and negative effect on acute lower respiratory tract infections.

Subjects & Methods: We underwent a meta-analysis that including observational studies done on children between the age of 2 -14 years old with the symptoms of ALRTIs and vitamin D level was assessed. Our study included 8 studies in the systematic review and 7 were included in the meta-analysis with number of 1623 participants. The outcomes targeted were: (1) OR and 95% CI of Vitamin D levels in included studies. (2) Mean vitamin D levels in cases and controls. (3) Correlation between vitamin D levels and incidence of recurrent ALRTI.

Results: The results of data collected after pooling it in different ways we found vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher risk for ALRTI by calculating odds ratio, risk ratio and risk difference. Adding on, we found Recurrent ALRTI is associated with lower serum vitamin D level by using standardized mean difference and mean difference.

Conclusion: Owing to these results, vitamin d deficiency has linkage with ALRTIs. These results have to be proved by more studies including other age groups. Future, more focused, well conducted; adequately powered randomized control trials could be considered.