Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and First Febrile Seizures (A Case-Control Study).

Authors: Mabrouka A.M. Bofarraj, Soamia Atia, Najwa. H. Abduljawad and Faiza M. Ali

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Keywords: Febrile Seizures, Iron-Deficiency Anemia, Case Control Studies


Objectives: To determine the association between iron status and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 5 years.

Design: A prospective, analytical case–control study. Setting: Pediatric department at Al Thawra central teaching hospital - Albida, during September 2013 to September 2014.

Participant patients: Enrolled 90 children who presented with febrile seizures (case group) and 180 children who presented with febrile illness without seizures (control group). Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume. serum iron and serum ferritin concentration were compared in two groups in relation to age, sex and use of iron supplementation.

Results: Comparison of demographic characteristic of children in both groups are showed that no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of sex distribution, type of feeding, vaccination and history of taking iron supplements in both groups. However, there were significant differences between the study groups regarding the place of residence (P=0.002) and highly significant for family history of convulsion (P= 0.000). The mean age of the patients with febrile seizure was 23.4 ±13.66 months which was significantly lower than the control group was  29.50 ±  20.569 months (p value=0.01). The means of MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin were significantly lower among the cases than the control group and p value (0.024) (0.006) (0.025) respectively. However, no significant differences were found among the groups in terms of Hb, Hct, MCHC, TIBC (p >0.05). The presence of Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (34.4%) in the convulsion group was significantly higher than the control group (18.33%) (P value = 0.002). complex FS With iron deficiency anemia (28.5%) children higher than percentage of those without iron deficiency anemia (16.1 %) but the different statistically was not significant(P=0.095). The most common cause of admissions with fever for both group are gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses.

Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, iron deficiency could be an important risk factor for development of febrile convulsion. Evaluation of iron status is encouraged to be performed in all children with febrile seizure.